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J. Agric. Food Chem., Vol 54

ISS 26 web Release Date: November 22,2006

Copyright 2006 American Chemical Society

Sources of Antioxidant Activity in Australian Native Fruits. Identification and Quantification of Anthocyanins

"Netzel, G." "Tian, Q., Schwartz, S., Konczak, I., Michael Netzel,* Gabriele Netzel, Qingguo Tian, Steven Schwartz, and Izabela Konczak

Food Science Australia, Riverside Life Science Center, 11 Julius Avenue, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia, Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Dornburgerstrasse 29, D-07743 Jena, Germany, Bioanalytical Laboratory, Pharmaceutical Product Development, Inc., 3230 Deming Way, Suite 190, Middleton, Wisconsin, and Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, 2015 Fyffe Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210

Received for review August 7, 2006. Revised manuscript received September 20, 2006. Accepted September 29, 2006. This project was supported by the Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation (postdoctoral Feodor Lynen-Fellowship offered to M.N.) and Food Science Australia.


Selected native Australian fruits, muntries (Kunzea pomifera F. Muell., Myrtaceae), Tasmanian pepper berry (Tasmanian lanceolata R. Br., Winteraceae), Illawarra plum (Podocarpus elatus R. Br. ex Endl., Podocarpaceae), Burdekin plum (Pleiogynium timorense DC. Leenh, Anacardiaceae), Cedar Bay cherry (Eugenia carissoides F. Muell., Myrtaceae), Davidson's plum (Davidsonia pruriens F. Muell. var. pruriens, Davidsoniaceae), and Molucca raspberry (Rubus moluccanus var. austropacificus van Royen, Rosaceae), were evaluated as sources of antioxidants by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays and compared with blueberry (Vaccinum spp. cv. Biloxi). The total reducing capacity of five fruits was 3.5-5.4-fold higher than that of blueberry, and the radical scavenging activities of muntries and Burdekin plum were 1.5- and 2.6-fold higher, respectively. The total phenolic level by Folin-Ciocalteu assay highly correlated with the antioxidant activity. Therefore, systematic research was undertaken to identify and characterize phenolic complexes. In the present study we report on the levels and composition of anthocyanins. The HPLC-DAD and HPLC/ESI-MS-MS (ESI = electrospray ionization) analyses revealed simple anthocyanin profiles of one to four individual pigments, with cyanidin as the dominating type. This is the first evaluation of selected native Australian fruits aiming at their utilization for the development of novel functional food products.

Keywords: Australian native fruits; antioxidant activity; DPPH; FRAP; total phenolics; anthocyanins; HPLC/ESI-MS-MS

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What you need to do about food safety?
Find out as much as you can about what is required of you and what you can do. See "Further information" below.

  • Talk to the local Council Environmental Health Officer
  • Talk to your buyers
  • Register as a food business if necessary - with your local council
  • Attend a training course to obtain the required skills and knowledge
  • Develop a food safety program (required of food businesses in Victoria)
  • Join a commercial food safety scheme if necessary
  • Promote your food as safe!
Further information

John Faragher is acknowledged as the original author of this Agriculture Note.

This project is jointly funded by DPI and the Rural Industries R&D Corporation (RIRDC).

The advice provided in this publication is intended as a source of information only. Always read the label before using any of the products mentioned. The State of Victoria and its employees do not guarantee that the publication is without flaw of any kind or is wholly appropriate for your particular purposes and therefore disclaims all liability for any error, loss or other consequence which may arise from you relying on any information in this publication.


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