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Issue 14 -  

From the editor

It will have been obvious to any readers who own a calendar that the magazine has not exactly come out bi-monthly.

The introduction of GST and the gradual but noticeable rise in costs has led to a rethink of how the magazine comes out and what it should cost.

It appears that I should be adding 10% to the subscription price and then sending this money to the government (why can't they collect their own darn taxes?)

Follow me for a moment as I do some figures...

$24 + 10% ($2.40) = $26.40 for six issues or 240 pages of magazine.

If the magazine remains the same price and becomes a quarterly of 52 pages, readers will get 208 pages or approx 15% less than they are at present. I will then pass 10% of this back to the government and we shall allow my accountant to take the remaining 5% for his time and trouble.

If this all seems confusing, you're right. I'd prefer to spend the time in the garden rather than wrestling with this new government impost but it appears that like death and taxes, this is a tax we had to have.

Current subscribers please note - if you have paid for 6 issues, you will get 6 issues - the time scale will simply be extended.

Happy planting.

On a happier note, the number of enquiries for bushfood product(s) has sky-rocketed over the last six months _ I wish I could say that the amount of product has kept pace but it hasn't. I am trying to convince our (Qld) state government that a bushfood industry coordinator is needed - if you live in Qld, perhaps you'd like to give this your support. If you live in SA, you've already got one. If you live in any other state or territory, perhaps you should be pushing for a little support from the government. Let the magazine know what you think.

Congratulations to Barry Tupper of the Bawinanga Aboriginal Corporation who is the latest winner in the `Renew and Win' competition - your copy of Jennifer Isaacs's fine book `A Companion Guide to Bush Food' is on its way.

Once again, I'd like to acknowledge the traditional people who walked this land and ate these foods long before we brought our mixed blessings to their shore.

Index 14

From the Editor


Bardees, Bogongs and Bees

National Co-operation

A Few Current Prices

When is a plum not a plum?

CSIRO Land and Water ~ and Bushfoods!

Bushfoods and biodiversity - An example of benefit

Earth Alive! Biodiversity Month

A little bit of news....

Billardiera spp

The Australian Native Food Industry is on the rise

Industry survey - responses needed!

Backhousia citriodora

Sell before you sow!

What's the best address on the internet?

A bushtucker eating adventure at White Cliffs

Conference - Griffith University

The Red Bopple Nut

Rainforest Liqueurs

Tasting Event

A few words on bushfoods

Stingless Bees in the Future...

Quandong workshop

Jean-Paul Bruneteau on the Quandong

Book Reviews


Snippets from the discussion group



My apologies to Larry Geno, whose advert was not updated in the last issue: contact details are:

Native Rainforest Fruits Nursery

Ph/Fax: 0754 788 815 - see page 7 for more info.

This issue was to cover macadamias tasty and toxic - couldn't complete my research into this in time so stay tuned for Issue 15.


Hello Sammy,

Sorry for the huge delay in replying to your email but we have been in Asia for a while and have just returned.

Acacia pycnantha - yes try and germinate some, should get good results.

Roasting is best done in a cast iron frying pan or pot with a lid.

It's a bit like popcorn when you roast this seed!

Preheat the pan to 150-200 degrees C then throw in a cup full of seed.

Keep the seed moving so you don't charcoal them.

Once you hear that popcorn sound remove the pan from the heat and keep the pan moving until there is no more popping. Too much cooking and you will have a burnt and bitter mix, too little and it can taste like boiled grass!

Transfer the seed to another dish and allow to completely cool before you grind them.

For home use, try a good quality coffee grinder, they do a great job.

I have tried a few grinders and found a brand called `Moulinex' which is made from stainless steel and has replacable blades, I believe it was around $50 from a major retailer. Plastic types tend to chip easily and I don't know about you but I can do without any more plastic in my diet!

Once ground, store the seed in a glass container in the fridge and the mix will keep for around 6 months.

Brian King


Dear Sammy,

I have been an ardent reader of your magazine since edition 2, I didn't know that I had actually missed out on edition 1, but that's what your records tell me. You have done and are doing, an excellent job of providing an informative and enjoyable magazine and website for this industry, keep it up please.

Anyway, I am writing to you about the Reconciliation Gardens Project. I think that the concept is excellent and with time will definitely develop into a very worthwhile, community based contribution to our gardens and our social interactions throughout Australia.

I am a landscape architect and have been for nearly 20 years now. I have worked on a broad variety of projects from intimate rear gardens to huge commercial gardens. This is why I have subscribed to your magazine, because it informs me about the types of plants that I can use as an integral part of my landscapes, to help people learn about our wonderful Australian landscape.

I do not just use Australian native plants however, unless it is a specific client request or for an Australian native garden, that is, because I feel it is extremely limiting to use plants from just one country, when plants from the entire world are at my fingertips (excluding species of environmental weeds, of course). The general public have their pre-conceived ideas of what a garden should and should not contain, I mean urban dwellers, not country people as much. Some folk love annual flowers, some adore roses, other want a tropical jungle and still others feel that they need a piece of remnant indigenous bushland (sadly, the minority).

One thing is in common with all of these people and that is they all love the environment of the "garden". Not all of them, however, love the natural environment of Australia, our deserts, our bushland, our magnificent forests, or even our wild unspoiled coastlines. Perhaps this can be (blamed) attributed to the historical over- dominance of the overseas media on our gardening styles, or perhaps because of the old saying "the grass is always greener on the other side of the fence," or " keeping up with the Jones's" or even perhaps because people can more easily relate to their immediate (urban) surroundings than some landscape hundreds of miles away, or because the media view of landscape as dull, colourless and boring... who knows? But one thing I feel for sure, is that very few people want politics of any sort to become entwined with our gardens. These are sacred, personal grounds in the minds of city dwellers and even many pasturalists. The garden is a place where it is "non-everything-bad." It is not political,a it is not stressful (although it can be hard work), it is not angry or violent, it is not sad, and it is not prejudice. The garden can be a universal place of equality and peace. It is also a place of learning.

Most people have a place where they feel "at one with themselves", they feel at ease and can forget some of the stresses of their all too busy lives, and this place is more often than not an outdoor place, or their little paradise , if you like. These places of respite are not always natural landscapes, they are often created or maintained by humans and usually near or in their homes. They can be a place under a large leafy tree in a back garden, a seat on a verandah looking out across the garden, a pathway along the edge of a pond, a seat in a local park or, a piece of "created natural bushland."

This is where I come into the scene. As a landscape architect I work with people to create gardens of all shapes sizes and types. I plant that shady tree in a back garden, design the layout and structure of the beautiful garden to be enjoyed whilst sitting on the verandah, designing and instigate the construction of the pond with the picturesque walk along its banks and work with residents in the creation of a piece of natural looking and functioning bushland. Most clients I deal with, know little about the actual details of creating a garden, but they are all experts on what constitutes a beautiful garden, in their eyes that is. It is here that I use my expertise to work with people, to bring together their non-physical thoughts and ideas and turn them into reality, from an image in a persons mind, iti help them turn it nto a physical , growing, green garden. Their visual concept of what constitutes a garden is very clear, it is only the methodology to create the vision which they lack. This brings me to the point of this letter to you. In the web page about the the Reconciliation Gardens Project and also in the brief articles in your magazine, you say "these gardens........... can only be designed by Aboriginal people." I do not agree. It is not because Aboriginal people may not have the necessary technical skills. It is because, I feel, a Reconciliation Garden should be a joint project(s) from conception to completion. The whole issue of any form of reconciliation must involve all parties equally. There must be a common, agreed vision, between all people concerned. If the artistic and technical design of the garden is not properly developed, then the project will not achieve its vision and then all the time and money will be wasted, but more sadly the vision of reconciliation will not have been achieved. I also feel that many Australians do not feel that they have been directly responsible for the current state of affairs concerning Aboriginal people. For whatever reasons, these are the views I am given by all manner of Australians when discussing this subject. Most people do not feel that they have to say "sorry" for anything, except that history has treated them badly. I do not want to discuss the rights or wrongs of any of these views. I do believe that people are basically good. People do not want to harm, or be part of anything that causes harm to other fellow humans. Perhaps a wonderful project such as this, may therefore be further enhanced by describing the project as a joint venture between Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals. In effect, it is a project which involves all Australians, no matter their cultural background or their heritage, in the design and creation of a garden(s) where people can learn about and teach others about, the beautiful flora and fauna (and food) of this country. There are many non-Aboriginals who have an in-depth knowledge in these matters and these people must be included alongside those Aboriginals who have an in-depth knowledge, if this project is in anyway to succeed. No-one should feel that they are in any way excluded from participating in creating a unified future for Australia, through the creation of a garden(s). If a vision such as this is adopted for the overall project, then this will definitely help in sourcing funding. People and Governments do not want to fund a project that may appear, rightly or wrongly, to segregate some sectors of people.

Now about the actual project in discussion. I am currently working on the development of a small garden in Melbourne, the main purpose of which is to teach young Aboriginals about their environment. This garden is one part of an overall total redevelopment of the Youth Remand facility which has been recently completed after several years of works. This facility differs from others in the world in that one of its main purposes it to rehabilitate kids and to try to prevent re-offending. It is not viewed as a place for "naughty children," or even as a prison. The garden will be an integral part of a Youth Remand Centre program for kids 10-16yrs old. It is only a proposal so far but, all the people involved in the project to date, Aboriginal elders included, are behind the concept.

There are too many kids offending these days and too many of these are Aboriginal kids. Our idea is to create a series of (intense) natural environments where members from different Aboriginal clans can come in and pass their knowledge of their environments, their stories and their culture on to younger generation, both Aboriginal and non-aboriginal, by harvesting preparing and/or eating bushfoods, harvesting and preparing bush materials and even, perhaps, some simple medicines. The garden is proposed to be a series of interconnecting biogeographical gardens representing a sample of some of the different environments in Victoria, from the coast to the basalt planes to the rocky escarpments. People from the Department of Human Services (the controlling authority), the facility architects & engineers, botanists, a member from the Melbourne Zoo, representatives from the various Aboriginal Clans throughout Victoria, the children staying at the facility, myself and others will all be involved in its creation. I couldn't actually have called this a reconciliation Garden, because that is not its main purpose, Its main purpose is to help in the rehabilitation of the children, however, reconciliation between our peoples will definitely be one of its outcomes...perhaps an unexpected outcome that all the participants will become very proud of. Again, keep up the good work,

Yours Sincerely,

Craig Eldridge

Associate of the Australian Institute of Landscape Architects

Hello to all Bushfoodies,

I have been developing a Bush Tucker site mainly for use as a resource for Multistrand Science students (Years 11 and 12), since it is an optional unit in the syllabus and is part of my school's curriculum. So the site is not meant to be highly technical and it does not only embrace the current bushfood industry, but also aboriginal and early settler usage. Anyway, I'd like you experts to check it out for accuracy and let me know of any major errors. The site also includes some interactive puzzles on bushfood that you might like to try, although you need a browser which is at least version 4 for them to work. If any other teachers are on the list, FYI the crossword puzzles, matches, multiple choice quiz, jumbled sentence, and cloze exercises were created using a beaut freeware program called Hot Potato.

The addresses:




Peter Jones

IT PD Coordinator

Alexandra Hills SHS



We are establishing a garden at a school here in Pt Pirie where there are quite a large number of Aboriginal students. It's being developed by an Aboriginal parent group, CDEP, Aboriginal Education (Spencer Institiute of TAFE) & anyone else who has a valid interest.

We've made some preliminary designs & plant selections & are moving on to more substantial stages soon.

Information on how this could become a "Reconcilliation Garden" may be something the various participants would also be interested in & any current information/inspiration would be appreciated.

Hope you can send us something about what is happening elsewhere & any expertise, plants etc we can tap into.

Thanks & all the best


Lecturer Aboriginal Education

Spencer Institute of TAFE Pt Pirie

my phone # is 08 86384295

Bardees, Bogongs and Bees:

Insects as bushfood in Australia.



Entomophagy, the act of eating insects, has been practiced for many thousands of years. Indigenous cultures around the world have made good use of insects as food, and today insects are still eaten in many countries.

In Australia, a wide variety of insects have been, and still are, utilised as food. Of the 26 orders of true insects occurring in Australia, Aborigines utilised members of at least the following 5 major groups: Grasshoppers and locusts (order Orthoptera), true bugs (order Hemiptera), beetles (order Coleoptera), moths and butterflies (order Lepidoptera), and wasps, bees and ants (order Hymenoptera). A variety of different insect species within these groups can be eaten, with the available food items at any one locality dependent on the season and natural distribution of each species.

Having had some entomology training, I thought it would be interesting to wax lyrical about the use of insects as bushfood in Australia, especially in an issue devoted to unusual bushfoods. I will begin by discussing savouries, and then move onto sweets: a natural progression on any menu!

Entrée and Main Course

Wicked Witjutis

The witjuti grub is easily the best known (and most loved?) bushfood of the six-legged variety. From my experience they are well-known overseas as a food `commonly' eaten by `all' Australians, and many cookbooks and general interest books honour this large grub in their recipes.

Originally, the name Witjuti was applied to larvae of wood moths (family Cossidae) which feed on the roots of various species of Acacia (witjuti) bushes. Such larvae have 6 legs, as insects typically do. As many readers will already know, witjuti grubs can be many centimetres long. As you might expect, the adults which hatch from such large caterpillars are amongst the largest moths known, with some having a wingspan exceeding 20 cm! Nowadays, however, the term `witjuti grub' is often used to describe 6 -legged and legless larvae of many different types of moths and beetles.

Historically, a species commonly sought after by Aborigines of South Australia was the cossid Xyleutes leucomochla, larvae of which feed on the sap of Acacia ligulata (Waterhouse, 1991). The grubs live inside tunnels within roots, and have to be dug up to be eaten. In southern Australia, larvae of several genera of ghost moths (family Hepialidae) were sought after as food. Larvae of one such species can reach 13cm long, and live to a depth of 2m! (Waterhouse, 1991). Adult hepialids were also eaten, after they emerged from their underground cocoons.

In Western Australia, larvae of a species of cerambycid beetle called a `bardee' are eaten. Bardee larvae live on the stems of various species of grass trees (Xanthorrhoea). Another type of bardee was eaten in Queensland, as were the abdomens of the adults of this beetle, after removing the hard wing covers (elytra).

wijtuiOriginally, the name Witjuti was applied to larvae of wood moths (family Cossidae) which feed on the roots of various species of Acacia (witjuti) bushes. Such larvae have 6 legs, as insects typically do. As many readers will already know, witjuti grubs can be many centimetres long. As you might expect, the adults which hatch from such large caterpillars are amongst the largest moths known, with some having a wingspan exceeding 20 cm! Nowadays, however, the term `witjuti grub' is often used to describe 6 -legged and legless larvae of many different types of moths and beetles.

Historically, a species commonly sought after by Aborigines of South Australia was the cossid Xyleutes leucomochla, larvae of which feed on the sap of Acacia ligulata (Waterhouse, 1991). The grubs live inside tunnels within roots, and have to be dug up to be eaten. In southern Australia, larvae of several genera of ghost moths (family Hepialidae) were sought after as food. Larvae of one such species can reach 13cm long, and live to a depth of 2m! (Waterhouse, 1991). Adult hepialids were also eaten, after they emerged from their underground cocoons.

In Western Australia, larvae of a species of cerambycid beetle called a `bardee' are eaten. Bardee larvae live on the stems of various species of grass trees (Xanthorrhoea). Another type of bardee was eaten in Queensland, as were the abdomens of the adults of this beetle, after removing the hard wing covers (elytra).

All of these different types of witjuti grubs were traditionally eaten raw, or cooked by rolling them in hot ashes or tossing them directly into the fire. Now the question you've all been asking: What do they taste like? Definitions vary of course, depending on the consumer. However, witjutis have been variously describes as tasting "like nut flavoured scrambled eggs and mild mozzarella; smoky" (Menzel & D'Aluisio, 1998), and like "scalded cream when raw; the rind of roast pork or bone marrow when cooked" (Waterhouse, 1991, p. 223). Another author describes the flavour as similar to "fried eggs, bacon and pork crackling; scrambled eggs or Polish salami (Cherikoff, 1997, p.141). One thing is for certain: although sometimes reluctant at first to try them, judging by the comparisons with more `acceptable' foods everyone seems to agree about how tasty witjuti grubs really are!

bogongBeautiful Bogongs

Another savoury, less well-known than the witjuti, is the bogong moth, Agrotis infusa. A considerable amount of information exists describing the life cycle of this moth and of the collecting and feeding habits of Aborigines who consumed them. This moth species starts out its life as a caterpillar in the lowland, western slopes of Qld, NSW, and Victoria. After development through the pupal stage, each newly-hatched adult escapes the oppressive dry heat of the plains in summer, migrating to the mountainous areas of south eastern NSW and eastern Victoria. Areas such as Mt Hotham, Mt Cope, and Mt Bogong (of course) in Victoria, and Mt Kosiusko and Mt Gingera in NSW are frequently visited (Common, 1954). In these areas, the moths congregate in huge numbers in sheltered crevices of granitic outcrops and in caves, where they undergo a kind of suspended animation called aestivation, relying on stored fat reserves for sustenance. They do, however, fly on occasions during this time. After a few months, they return to the western plains to breed, having spared the larval stages the hot dry conditions and the unpalatable grasses which grow there at that time (Common, 1954, 1990). This annual migration has proceeded for thousands of years.

Aborigines came from tribes surrounding the mountains to feast on this seasonally abundant, and highly nutritious, food source. The moths were knocked off the rocky walls and onto animal skins or bark (Waterhouse, 1991). They were rendered ready to eat by lightly cooking in hot ashes. Again, exactly what bogong moths taste like varies somewhat: from "sweetish, nutty" Waterhouse, 1991, p. 222); to sometimes "a sweetness and flavour of snow gum nectar" Cherikoff, 1997, p.143). The moths are highly nutritious, being very high in fat (50-75%), with some carbohydrate and protein (Common, 1954; Flood, 1980; Waterhouse, 1991). Male moths apparently have a slightly higher fat content (60-75%), compared with 51-68% of females (Common, 1954). When the abundance of moths exceeded immediate consumption, cooked moths were compressed into fatty cakes and sometimes preserved by smoking, allowing them to be eaten at a later date (Flood, 1980; Waterhouse, 1991).

Gourmet Galls

Galls are a mass of abnormal plant tissue growth enclosing an insect feeding or sheltering on the plant. Each gall forms as a defensive response to chemical irritants secreted by the insect within. The small, nutty tasting, immature stages of scale insects (order Hemiptera) can be removed from their gall and eaten (Menzel & D'Aluisio, 1998). Body fluids from the adult, grub like female bug living at the centre of the gall can also be consumed.

Awfully Tasty Orthoptera

In northern parts of the continent, Aborigines skewered various types of grasshoppers and locusts on sharp sticks before cooking them on fires (Waterhouse, 1991).

Dessert Sugarbag


No meal is complete of course without dessert, especially a dessert incorporating some sugarbag honey. This is obtained from nests of very small, native bees belonging to different species of the genus Trigona. These bees are only several millimetres long, and they usually nest in Eucalyptus tree hollows where the honey is stored in special cells inside. The cells are not laid out as `neatly' as the domestic honey bee, with the hive seemingly consisting of a vague network of interconnnecting cells and tunnels. Consistency of the honey varies, with one type being thick and dark, another being pale and runny. The second type has the consistency of very warm, normal honey. Although basically sweet, of course, both types also have a distinctive, acidic taste (Waterhouse, 1991). I have found that the pale honey tastes like a lemon juice and honey mix, just like the one sipped to cure sore throats. It also has an almost fizzy quality as it hits the back of the mouth, and a very distinctive, tangy aroma.

The entrance to the hive is lined with a dark, resinous but not particularly sticky substance called cerumen. Unlike the domestic honey bee (Apis mellifera), Trigona do not sting, although they can swarm and bite, which is uncomfortable rather than being painful. But it's definitely worth the swarming masses to obtain the honey; I just wear a thick, long-sleeved shirt! The popularity of this honey has greatly increased in recent years, with it now being sold commercially. With a bit of experimentation, its uses are almost unlimited. Suggested uses are as a dessert topping (for example, on ice cream), or try it in baking, adding a distinctive sweet piquancy to cakes and biscuits.

Honeypot Ants: Another Bag of Sugar

A second, more remarkable source of honey comes from honeypot ants belonging to the genera Melophorus and Camponotus. The species Camponotus inflatus inhabits the arid zone of the continent (Shattuck, 1999). Some workers of this species are chosen to act as storage receptacles, providing honey on tap and on demand to other members of the colony, and to humans with a sweet tooth!

This species lives in tunnels in the soil in mulga country. Worker ants foraging for food after periods of rain collect nectar from newly-blossomed flowers, and this is fed continually to other selected workers inside the colony, where it is stored in their abdomens. After some time, the abdomens of these `storage workers' become so inflated they look like golden, translucent sacs the size of chick peas! They are so large in fact that the ants cannot leave the nest. Instead they hang from the roof and regurgitate honey to other workers when above-ground food sources have dried up. If any readers have seen these enlarged honeypot ants, you may have noticed small, dark, rectangular areas on the ants' abdomens. These are the segments of the abdominal body wall, normally close together but now connected by very stretched, translucent intersegmental membrane. Anybody can collect honeypot ants by firstly locating a mulga bush and ant nest and then digging down, sometimes several feet deep, to the tunnels. Here, the enlarged workers are harvested off the ceilings. To eat, the ants are picked up by the head and thorax and the abdomen is bitten off, releasing warm nectar into the mouth.

Luscious Lerps

Another entomological sweet treat is the strange sounding snack called a lerp (order Hemiptera). A lerp (pl. lerps) is the protective cover within which is the nymph of a type of true bug which looks a bit like booklouse. They feed on sugar-rich plant sap, the phloem of usually eucalypts and acacias. Lerps come in all manner of forms; often elaborate lattices, fans, or shell shapes. Interestingly, lerps are constructed largely of dried, sugar-rich waste product excreted by the insects as a result of their high sugar intake.

References and Further Reading

Cherikoff, V. (1997) The Bushfood Handbook. Bush Tucker Supply Australia Pty Ltd. Boronia Park, NSW.

Common, I. F. B. (1954) A Study of the Ecology of the Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with special reference to its behaviour during migration and aestivation. Australian Journal of Zoology 2: 223-263.

Common, I. F. B. (1990) Moths of Australia. Melbourne University Press. Melbourne.

CSIRO Division of Entomology (1991). The Insects of Australia. Vols. 1 and 2. 2nd Ed. Melbourne University Press. Melbourne.

Flood, J. (1980) The Moth Hunters. Aboriginal Prehistory in the Australian Alps. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. Canberra.

Menzel, P. & D'Aluisio, F. (1998) Man Eating Bugs. The Art and Science of Eating Insects. Material World Books. Berkeley.

Shattuck, S. O. (1999) Australian Ants: Their Biology and Identification. Monographs on Invertebrate Taxonomy Volume 3. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Waterhouse, D. F. (1991) Insects and Humans in Australia.

In: The Insects of Australia. Vol 1 2nd Ed. pp. 221-235. Melbourne University Press. Melbourne.


National Co-operation

I print the following article from David Thompson with great delight - we cannot, individually or collectively, call ourselves an industry until we begin to work together. Distance no longer holds great tyranny - the time is well and truly ripe for this concept and I would encourage interested readers to contact David with support or suggestions. The Ed.

Since its inception the bushfood industry has failed to establish a credible national peak industry body. Australian Native Bushfood Industry Committee was an initiative from Canberra and lacked a natural constituency, the Confederation of Regional Bushfood Organisations proposed by our past president lacked the support and cohesion to meet its objectives. The need for a PIB for Bushfoods remains, and the CORBO concept relevant for the contemporary circumstances.

Recent correspondence to me from Southern Vales Bushfood and sister organisation Northern Bushfood Association indicates the circumstances are right to explore forms of national cooperation. The basis of cooperation should be regional bodies, representative of the industry, should nominate a working party to promote issues of common interest at a national level.

There should be no limitation on the independence or scope of operation of the cooperating bod

ies. By working on agreed tasks we can develop processes to suit the objectives and build understanding and evolve appropriate structure. The strength of the industry will be at the grassroots level of individual operations and local networks. National consultative, advisory and policy development functions can be ceded or referred to the PIB.

A matter that needs urgent attention, is federal industry support and research funding. Accordingly I will be conferring with NBA to put a joint proposal to RIRDC (Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation) that funding allocations be recommended and monitored by a representative industry body. This is consistent with the concept of industry control and the precedents established for other industries.

David Thompson

President, Southern Bushfoods Association.

RMB 7390A, Wartook, Vic 3401


A Few Current Prices

Bush tomato (Solanum centrale) - priceless it seems but the harvest should start soon - expect hefty prices.

Native pepper (Tasmannia lanceolata) - $19/kg fresh from Diemen Pepper 21 Bay Rd, Newtown, Tas 7008

Native tamarind:

(Diploglottis campbellii) - $12/kg frozen - from Larry Geno who believes the price will fall to $8/kg and that this will remain viable at farm level.

Acacia victoriae - raw - $20/kg. Roasted and ground - $40/kg - from Lyle Dudley, 0886 662013

Warrigal greens (Tetragonia tetragonoides) - $6/kg fresh, $8/kg frozen (Sammy)